Google: AI Principles




Google uses Artificial Intelligence (AI) in lots of ways – to help customers, create better products and to help people tackle urgent problems.

“We recognize that such powerful technology raises equally powerful questions about its use. How AI is developed and used will have a significant impact on society for many years to come. As a leader in AI, we feel a deep responsibility to get this right. So today, we’re announcing seven principles to guide our work going forward. These are not theoretical concepts; they are concrete standards that will actively govern our research and product development and will impact our business decisions.”


Objectives for AI Applications

1 Be socially beneficial

2 Avoid creating or reinforcing unfair bias

3 Be built and tested for safety

4 Be accountable to people

5 Incorporate privacy design principles

6 Uphold high standards of scientific excellence

7 Be made available for uses that accord with these principles

AI Applications we will not pursue

  1. Technologies that cause or are likely to cause overall harm.
  2. Weapons or other technologies whose principal purpose or implementation is to cause or directly facilitate injury to people.
  3. Technologies that gather or use information for surveillance violating internationally accepted norms.
  4. Technologies whose purpose contravenes widely accepted principles of international law and human rights.


Google Blog post by Google CEO Sundar Pichai


What I love about this manifesto is that it address both sides of the equation. Part One offers some objectives – this is where we would like to go. And Part Two offers ‘applications we will not pursue’ which tells where we’re not headed.

You might like to think of this as creating a pair of railway tracks. We want to steer in this direction but not too far here or there.

If you’re in a delicate, hotly debated or fast moving space it might be appropriate to include both ‘toward’ and ‘away’ from guidelines as part of your manifesto. If this fits your situation then Google’s AI Principles is an example worth following.


Google: Ten things we know to be true (an early manifesto from Google)

The Science Code Manifesto (software guidelines in science)

Eric Raymond – The Cathedral and the Bazaar (Open Source software manifesto)


Astronaut Hopefuls Manifesto

Astronaut Hopefuls Manifesto


Brian Shiro is a NOAA geophysicist, a NASA researcher, and co-founder of Astronauts for Hire. He’s also an astronaut hopeful!


Brian Shiro wants to be an astronaut. And, now that NSAA has started to recruit more astronaut candidates he offers his top eight things that he has learnt from talking with astronauts and astronaut hopefuls.

Want to be an Astronaut? Here's 8 tips to launch your career #manifesto Click To Tweet

Astronaut Hopefuls Manifesto

  1. Clarify why you want to be an astronaut
  2. Set realistic expectations
  3. Every decision counts
  4. Prepare your body and mind
  5. Work well with others
  6. Meet people and learn from them
  7. NASA isn’t the only path one can take to become an astronaut
  8. Be authentic and enjoy the journey!


Image: Wikipedia


A classically simple rule based manifesto written as a simple easy-to-read article. It also shows that you can write a manifesto about almost anything.

Most of his suggestions sound simple and would fit well in other manifestos. However, #7 stands out because it’s so specific to his topic.


Wikibon Community: Big Data Manifesto

Creator: “Wikibon is a professional community solving technology and business problems through an open source sharing of free advisory knowledge.” (from their website)

Purpose: Business Analytics drives business decisions and the better the date the better the analytical insight. Small data is centrally controlled data. Big data proposes a new way to structure and organisation data in response to the flood of data now coming from a wide variety of sources such as the internet, mobile devices and other networked devices.

Manifesto (Introduction only)

Big Data is the new definitive source of competitive advantage across all industries. Enterprises and technology vendors that dismiss Big Data as a passing fad do so at their peril and, in our opinion, will soon find themselves struggling to keep up with more foreword-thinking rivals. For those organizations that understand and embrace the new reality of Big Data, the possibilities for new innovation, improved agility, and increased profitability are nearly endless.

Wikibon Community: Big Data Manifesto


Full Manifesto and image from Jeff Kelly on


The Science Code Manifesto

The Science Code Manifesto

Creator: Nick Barnes has more than 20 years of experience in the software industry, as a researcher, programmer, software engineer, consultant, and manager. In 1997 he co-founded Ravenbrook Limited, a software consultancy firm, for which he worked until starting the Climate Code Foundation, and for which he continues as a director. In 2008 he founded the Clear Climate Code project, which is now part of the work of the Foundation.

Purpose: In response to and contribution to the Royal Society’s policy study on “Science as a Public Enterprise”. And, to express the belief that “Open Source publication of all science software will be one outcome of the current revolution in scientific methods”.


Software is a cornerstone of science. Without software, twenty-first century science would be impossible. Without better software, science cannot progress.

But the culture and institutions of science have not yet adjusted to this reality. We need to reform them to address this challenge, by adopting these five principles:

Code: All source code written specifically to process data for a published paper must be available to the reviewers and readers of the paper.

Copyright: The copyright ownership and license of any released source code must be clearly stated.

Citation: Researchers who use or adapt science source code in their research must credit the code’s creators in resulting publications.

Credit: Software contributions must be included in systems of scientific assessment, credit, and recognition.

Curation: Source code must remain available, linked to related materials, for the useful lifetime of the publication.



Blog on

Science Code Manifesto

Climate Code Foundation

Andrew Hanelly: Just Another SEO Manifesto

Andrew Hanelly: SEO Manifesto

Creator: Andrew Hanelly is Director of Digital Strategy for TMG and for one semester in college, was a sociology major.

Purpose: To clarify what makes good Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)

Just Another SEO Manifesto

If I had only one thing to say about search engine optimization, it’d be this: don’t chase the search engines, instead chase what the search engines are chasing.

…Content should be used to build relationships – not simply drive traffic volume – and ultimately develop an audience that trusts and values your brand or organization.

…The rise of the search engine and subsequent rise of social media has birthed snake-oil salesmen and silver-tongued, self-proclaimed gurus who set up shop to squeeze a quick dollar out of your organization. Their focus all too often is on how to use tricks (with both black and grey hats) to get your message in front of as many eyeballs – qualified or not – that they can fit on a slick measurement report.

But what they fail to measure is the disappointment, the dissatisfaction and ultimately the sour taste their potion leaves in the mouths of what could have been your audience.

Because they don’t focus on quality content.

They don’t focus on what your audience truly desires. They don’t answer questions your audience is readily asking. They simply apply a formula, manipulate the rules while they can, and disappear when the algorithm or social tide changes (or worse, offer an up-sell to the latest and greatest scam).

Without a focus on quality content, all SEO efforts are rendered useless.

…Strive to create compelling content. Listen to your audience, and let their voices inform your recommendations. Employ the best editorial minds (and standards) to generate truly powerful content. Do it regardless of the popular platform of the day…



Complete Manifesto on the Engage Blog, 9 September 2011.



Relenta: The Simple CRM Manifesto

Relenta: The Simple CRM Manifesto

Creator: Dmitri Eroshenko, founder and CEO of Relenta, CRM for people who get things done.

Purpose: Our software design mantras that make Relenta what it is, nothing else and nothing less.

 The simple CRM manifesto

Simple is more, not less

We believe that the term “simple software” is popularly misused. Designing simple apps isn’t easy, and simple doesn’t mean dumbed-down. For us, simplicity is synonymous with more ability. Simple is the software that lets you get more done with less effort.

Live and let work

We believe in not forcing you to work the way we think is right. Instead, we give you the tools and get out of your way. When faced with multiple design decisions, we apply the one that makes fewer assumptions about what is good for you.

The 90-10 rule

We believe that less is more. Our goal is the software that gives you 90 per cent of the functionality that you need with only 10 per cent of the application weight. Why not the familiar 80-20 rule? Because we can do better than that.

The one click zone

We believe that the #1 reason for poor productivity is data fragmentation across multiple apps, accounts and browser windows. Our goal is to organize any and all information required for running your daily life so that nothing is more than one click away.

Similarities, not differences

We believe that at their core, all small work groups share similar challenges. For this reason we are focusing on the similarities among our users and not on what makes them different. We build our software to be universally applicable to work groups in any trade or profession.




Manifesto on Relenta’s blog, posted August 22nd, 2011.



Eric Raymond: The Cathedral and the Bazaar

Eric Raymond: The Cathedral and the Bazaar

Creator: Eric Raymond, is a software programmer, author and open source software advocate. After the publication of his book, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, he became the unofficial spokesman for the open source movement.

Purpose: To offer guidelines for creating good open source software. The cathedral represents the top-down traditional approach to developing software. In contrast the Bazaar represents the bottom-up approach typified by open-source software.

Manifesto: The Cathedral and the Bazaar

1. Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer’s personal itch.

2. Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse).

3. Plan to throw one away; you will, anyhow.

4. If you have the right attitude, interesting problems will find you.

5. When you lose interest in a program, your last duty to it is to hand it off to a competent successor.

6. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging.

7. Release early. Release often. And listen to your customers.

8. Given a large enough beta-tester and co-developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and the fix obvious to someone.

9. Smart data structures and dumb code works a lot better than the other way around.

10. If you treat your beta-testers as if they’re your most valuable resource, they will respond by becoming your most valuable resource.

11. The next best thing to having good ideas is recognizing good ideas from your users. Sometimes the latter is better.

12. Often, the most striking and innovative solutions come from realizing that your concept of the problem was wrong.

13. Perfection (in design) is achieved not when there is nothing more to add, but rather when there is nothing more to take away.

14. Any tool should be useful in the expected way, but a truly great tool lends itself to uses you never expected.

15. When writing gateway software of any kind, take pains to disturb the data stream as little as possible—and never throw away information unless the recipient forces you to!

16. When your language is nowhere near Turing-complete, syntactic sugar can be your friend.

17. A security system is only as secure as its secret. Beware of pseudo-secrets.

18. To solve an interesting problem, start by finding a problem that is interesting to you.

19. Provided the development coordinator has a communications medium at least as good as the Internet, and knows how to lead without coercion, many heads are inevitably better than one.



The Cathedral and the Bazaar on Wikipedia

Eric Raymond on Wikipedia

Image from the cover of the book.

Aaron Swartz: The Guerilla Open Access Manifesto

Guerilla Open Access Manifesto

Creator: Aaron Swartz is an Internet activist, scholar and programmer. He’s been involved in the founding of such projects as Reddit,, Open Library and Demand Progress. This manifesto was written in 2008.

Purpose: The control over scientific and cultural information by corporations should stop. Instead, we need to fight for Guerilla Open Access by posting such information on file sharing networks.

The Guerilla Open Access Manifesto

“Information is power. But like all power, there are those who want to keep it for themselves. The world’s entire scientific and cultural heritage, published over centuries in books and journals, is increasingly being digitized and locked up by a handful of private corporations. Want to read the papers featuring the most famous results of the sciences? You’ll need to send enormous amounts to publishers like Reed Elsevier.

There are those struggling to change this. The Open Access Movement has fought valiantly to ensure that scientists do not sign their copyrights away but instead ensure their work is published on the Internet, under terms that allow anyone to access it. But even under the best scenarios, their work will only apply to things published in the future. Everything up until now will have been lost.

That is too high a price to pay. Forcing academics to pay money to read the work of their colleagues? Scanning entire libraries but only allowing the folks at Google to read them? Providing scientific articles to those at elite universities in the First World, but not to children in the Global South? It’s outrageous and unacceptable.

“I agree,” many say, “but what can we do? The companies hold the copyrights, they make enormous amounts of money by charging for access, and it’s perfectly legal — there’s nothing we can do to stop them.” But there is something we can, something that’s already being done: we can fight back.

Those with access to these resources — students, librarians, scientists — you have been given a privilege. You get to feed at this banquet of knowledge while the rest of the world is locked out. But you need not — indeed, morally, you cannot — keep this privilege for yourselves. You have a duty to share it with the world. And you have: trading passwords with colleagues, filling download requests for friends.

Meanwhile, those who have been locked out are not standing idly by. You have been sneaking through holes and climbing over fences, liberating the information locked up by the publishers and sharing them with your friends.

But all of this action goes on in the dark, hidden underground. It’s called stealing or piracy, as if sharing a wealth of knowledge were the moral equivalent of plundering a ship and murdering its crew. But sharing isn’t immoral — it’s a moral imperative. Only those blinded by greed would refuse to let a friend make a copy.

Large corporations, of course, are blinded by greed. The laws under which they operate require it — their shareholders would revolt at anything less. And the politicians they have bought off back them, passing laws giving them the exclusive power to decide who can make copies.

There is no justice in following unjust laws. It’s time to come into the light and, in the grand tradition of civil disobedience, declare our opposition to this private theft of public culture.

We need to take information, wherever it is stored, make our copies and share them with the world. We need to take stuff that’s out of copyright and add it to the archive. We need to buy secret databases and put them on the Web. We need to download scientific journals and upload them to file sharing networks. We need to fight for Guerilla Open Access.

With enough of us, around the world, we’ll not just send a strong message opposing the privatization of knowledge — we’ll make it a thing of the past. Will you join us?”



The Science of Destruction Blog Post



Microsoft: 10 Immutable Laws of Security

LuluSec and Anonymous: Anti-Security Manifesto

Creator: Microsoft Security Response Center is a division of Microsoft that investigates thousands of security reports every year to determine if a flaw results from one of their products.

Purpose: Microsoft Security Response Center investigates thousands of security reports every year. Not all real security problems result from product flaws. The most likely list of issues have been collated below.

Manifesto: 10 Immutable Laws of Security

Law #1: If a bad guy can persuade you to run his program on your computer, it’s not your computer anymore

Law #2: If a bad guy can alter the operating system on your computer, it’s not your computer anymore

Law #3: If a bad guy has unrestricted physical access to your computer, it’s not your computer anymore

Law #4: If you allow a bad guy to upload programs to your website, it’s not your website any more

Law #5: Weak passwords trump strong security

Law #6: A computer is only as secure as the administrator is trustworthy

Law #7: Encrypted data is only as secure as the decryption key

Law #8: An out of date virus scanner is only marginally better than no virus scanner at all

Law #9: Absolute anonymity isn’t practical, in real life or on the Web

Law #10: Technology is not a panacea



Complete descriptions and full manifesto



Manifesto for Software Craftsmanship

Creator: Prompted by the works of Andy Hunt and Dave Thomas who wrote The Pragmatic Programmer and Pete McBreen who wrote the Software Craftsmanship.

Purpose: Raise the bar for the standard and craft of professional software development. It builds upon the earlier Agile Software Manifesto for software development.

Manifesto for Software Craftsmanship

Manifesto for Software Craftsmanship


The Manifesto with Signaturies

Sign this Manifesto

Some useful reading on related topics

Wikipedia background to the Software Craftsmanship movement

Other Software Manifestos

LuluSec and Anonymous: Operation Anti-Security

Michael Widenius: The Hacking Business Model

The Open Cloud Computing Manifesto

Agile Software Development